In today's study from Acts 3:18-26, we again talk about who Peter was addressing, Israel's failed national repentance, and discussed what would have happened had they repented.
Times of Refreshing
vv.18-19 But those things which God foretold by the mouth of all His prophets, that the Christ would suffer, He has thus fulfilled. Repent therefore and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, so that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord, The times of refreshing is referring to the Kingdom.
Times of Restoration of All Things
vv.20-21 and that He may send Jesus Christ, who was preached to you before, whom heaven must receive until the times of restoration of all things, which God has spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began. The "times of restoration of all things" will take place during the Tribulation. cf. the Title Deed of Revelation 5. This also clearly indicates that Peter understood that even though they did repent (v.19), it would have been followed by the Tribulation before the Second Coming. He knew Daniel 9 and the 70th week would take place next.
A Prophet of Deliverance
vv.22-23 For Moses truly said to the fathers, 'THE LORD YOUR GOD WILL RAISE UP FOR YOU A PROPHET LIKE ME FROM YOUR BRETHREN. HIM YOU SHALL HEAR IN ALL THINGS, WHATEVER HE SAYS TO YOU. AND IT SHALL BE THAT EVERY SOUL WHO WILL NOT HEAR THAT PROPHET SHALL BE UTTERLY DESTROYED FROM AMONG THE PEOPLE.' Just as Moses delivered the nation from bondage then, Jesus will do the same for them if they would accept it.
v.24 Yes, and all the prophets, from Samuel and those who follow, as many as have spoken, have also foretold these days. Notice that Peter says that the prophecies were for "these days".
v.25 You are sons of the prophets, and of the covenant which God made with our fathers, saying to Abraham, 'AND IN YOUR SEED ALL THE FAMILIES OF THE EARTH SHALL BE BLESSED.' Again, Peter is not addressing Gentiles at all! "Our fathers" is referring to Israel! The bottom line is that God's plan was to use the nation of Israel to reach the nations (Deu 32:8; Isa 42:1; Isa 49:5-7; Isa 59:20-21; Isa 60:1-3 (Mat 5:14); Zec 8:23).
The Abrahamic Covenant was threefold:
1. Nation - Israel
2. Land - Promised Land
3. King - Messiah and Savior
From that point, God would use them to reach the nations.
v.26 To you first, God, having raised up His Servant Jesus, sent Him to bless you, in turning away every one of you from your iniquities." It is very clear that Christ came to the Jews first. Notice that the call was that "every one of you from his iniquities". God was asking for national repentance, not necessarily individual. Had they done it, the Tribulation would have taken place, they would have preached to the Gentiles, and the Second Coming. Of course, they did not, Rome came in forty years later and destroyed the city and the temple and scattered them throughout the nations and the Times of the Gentiles came in.